**15. RECTIFICATION OF THE KALIYUGA
EPOCH**

By some authorities the kaliyuga epoch is said to have begun at Lanka
(Ujjain) sunrise on Friday 18 February 3102 B.C. of the Julian calendar,
while by others the previous midnight. We shall adopt the midnight convention, JD 588465.2895.

Indian tradition posits an eclipse
of the Sun at the start of the kaliyuga epoch. The *Low-Precision
Formulae For Planetary Positions* by T.C. Van Flandern and K.F.
Pulkkinen give the time for a new moon (conjunction in longitude) at
2:36 p.m. at Greenwich on Julian day 588465. This corresponds to 7:39 p.m.
mean local time at Ujjain (75° 47' E). By this reckoning, the given kaliyuga epoch would be a civil epoch, the first day of a lunar month.

The modern *SuryaSiddhanta* in the
commentary states that at the kaliyuga epoch the mean longitude of the
Sun coincides with the fixed initial point of the sidereal sphere and is
54° from the mean vernal equinox. This is sufficient information to
calculate the true astronomical kaliyuga epoch.

From the kaliyuga epoch to the next succeeding mean vernal equinox there are

We use Simon Newcomb's expression for the Sun's mean longitude in the54° ---- · 365.2421756 = 54.78632634 mean solar days. 360°

Therefore, the mean vernal equinox nearest the kaliyuga epoch will be on mean Greenwich Julian date360° = 279°.696678 + 0°.9856473354 d d = 81.47267193 mean solar days JD = 2415020.0 + 81.47267193 = 2415101.473.

The astronomical kaliyuga epoch is, therefore, on mean Greenwich Julian date2415101.473 - (3101 + 1900)365.2421756 = 588525.3525.

The required rectification constant to convert from the midnight civil kaliyuga epoch to the astronomical kaliyuga epoch is588525.3525 - 54.78632634 = 588470.5662.

588470.5662 - 588465.2895 = 5.2767 mean solar days.

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